Wednesday, April 8, 2020
Affirmative Action Essays (300 words) - Social Inequality Affirmative Action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why, at this point in history, we must become more color conscious. History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The Declaration of Independence asserts that all men are created equal. Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), made this official by classifying slaves as a species of private property. Bibliography etywetyety
Monday, March 9, 2020
Freedom of Information Act Essays Freedom of Information Act Essay Freedom of Information Act Essay Freedom of Information Act Name: Course: Institution: : Instructor: Date: Freedom of Information Act The Freedom of Information Act was initiated by President Lyndon Johnson in 1966. He saw the need of transparency and implemented the Act in 1967 (Moore, 2005). This Act ensures the public has access to information it deserves to know. The government has the responsibility of disclosing its records to the public if they request to access them. In cases where the government withholds information, the intention of withholding the information should be justified to the public (Moore, 2005). The article discusses some of the secrets that the public needs to know about the Bush administration. The secret documents that people want to be publicized include documents containing information about what treasury did with money that was allocated for people who had lost their assets. The public also wants to know why the government allowed the torture of innocent Americans during interrogations claiming that it was in the best interests of the country. This kind of information is very important so that the public understands how the government operates to avoid friction with public offices. Information about hurricane Katrina should also be made public. People want to know what plans the government is making to avoid similar situations. When Katrina struck, the whole country was caught oblivious and measures to save lives and property were hurried. Since people do not want the same to happen again, they want the government to keep them in the loop about its preparations and procedures about handling disasters of any kind. Since president Obama got into office, there have been numerous letters requesting that he releases to the public documents from the bush administration. These documents are believed to contain information that is considered highly enigmatic. Those who worked for the bush administration claim that the documents could not be released then because they were Ã¢â¬Å"internal memos and also contained information about trade secretsÃ¢â¬ (Nation, 2009). Members of the public found this hard to believe since even Congress had not seen those documents. There is mounting pressure on the Obama administration to order for the release of these documents by various humanitarian groups. These groups believe that the profanity of these documents warrants their instantaneous release to the public because the public deserves to know. Obama is said to be defending the bush administration and all their discretions. This, even after white house lawyers admitted to discovering emails that had been accounted for as destroyed. As president, Obama could order the release of those emails. However, the justice system continues to protect the bush administration making it harder to gain access to these documents. One of the activist groups wants to know why names of the visitors to the white house are kept secret. This group believes that the public has every right to know the names of those who visited the white house during the bush era regardless of the purposes of their visits. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to get that list o names has proved futile as the vice president ordered the secret service not to release the list under any circumstances. Obama can make this list public; all he needs to do is give the order. The justice department also needs to disclose how cases used to be handled and how they are being handled presently. Its policies also need to be made known to the public. The Obama memoranda advocates for absolute transparency between government and the people. In his efforts to demonstrate this transparency, he should release emails from the bush administration and emails and documentation from his administration. These measures are of the essence if president Obama wants to be re-elected back into office. Reference March Issue. The Nation. (2009) Retrieved from: thenation.com/doc/20090316/wiener Moore, A. D. (2005). Information ethics: Privacy, property, and power. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Climate change - Essay Example This paper focuses specifically on the Gulf region in the United States, an area in which environment and living creatures have grown inter-dependent on adequate precipitation to effectively sustain lifestyle and longevity. The problem in this region, specifically, is the current water level in the Mississippi River which is significantly reduced due to climate change. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2002) identifies that the Mississippi River region provides shelter and breeding grounds for migrating birds in the winter. Many different species of birds move away from colder regions to reproduce before returning to these regions to assist in pollination of plants and insect management in the food chain. The adequate waters near the Mississippi River in this region, historically, have provided quality shelter and water sources, thus providing other areas of the country with beneficial species regeneration. Today, however, climate change has shifted the volume of precipitation norm ally distributed within this region, inundating the Northern regions of the U.S. with these much-needed rains. Climatescience.gov (2007) further offers that when trees are exposed to higher carbon dioxide, rather than the highly oxygenated precipitation usually found in the Gulf region, trees alter their wood producing output. Instead of thickening trunks, the trees tend to establish more ground-level roots and smaller twig-like branches. Less oxygen replenishment through precipitation alters the scope of the environment, impacting the availability of building materials and thus impacting human lifestyles and economy. Nonliving dependencies associated with this problem include the infrastructures in this area created for predictable precipitation patterns. Walton (2012) indicates that a group of scientists and the Army Corps of Engineers will be rebuilding levees that were previously destroyed by humans to accommodate for rising water levels in a particular area just a year previous ly. This represents significant costs to destroy and rebuild infrastructure as well as causing problems with the homes and businesses that cannot predict their fluctuating dependency on barrier placement depending on water levels. The lack of predictability in climate change continues to disrupt levee longevity which considerable risks to the community due to depleting precipitation volumes. The human effects in this situation are largely negative, as most scientists and engineers are running on previous assumptions about precipitation predictability and infrastructure development without considering long-term sustainability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is ever-diligent to attempt to sustain this environment for species migration and breeding, however using age-old sustainability plans that are no longer relevant in the face of dramatic shifts in precipitation distribution. An effective sustainability plan would include dredging of the Mississippi River so as to maintain more control over depth and to tap the underlying water table in this region to feed during periods of drought. Pumping stations designed to draw water from under the soil would be a long-term strategy to combat climate change. At the same time, it would ensure water is
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Glaucoma label study - Article Example However, a small number of glaucoma patients with reduced visual function might benefit from large print labels on their topical eye drops. Glaucoma is an important global public health concern with the proportion of patients burdened with this sight threatening disease ever increasing due to the rapidly ageing population. In Australia, glaucoma causes 3% visual impairment and 14% blindness in patients aged 40 and over. Since the majority of glaucoma patients are managed initially with medical therapy, compliance is critical for decreasing disease progression. Despite the availability of effective pharmacologic therapies, non-compliance in patients with glaucoma has been reported to vary from 24 to 59%. Many obstacles affect treatment compliance including regimen factors (refill, cost, complexity, change, side effects), patient factors (knowledge, skill, memory, motivation, health beliefs, comorbidities), provider factors (dissatisfaction, communication) and situational or environmental factors (lack of support, major life events, travel, competing activities, change in routine). Quality of written instructions such as amount of information and readability is important in ensuring medication compliance especially in visually impaired, elderly patients where written treatment information often supplements verbal instruction. In some cases, especially when a patient has a care giver, this information becomes the main source reference for correct interpretation of their medication regime. The aim of our study was to assess whether readability and comprehension of medication label size was a contributing factor to treatment compliance in glaucoma patients. Eighty subjects with diagnosed glaucoma were recruited from the public out-patient clinic of a tertiary eye hospital in Melbourne, Australia. The duration of study was 6 weeks (27.03.07 to
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Food Scarcity in Djibouti Djibouti is a small arid country in Eastern Africa. It has extremely important and convenient transshipment facilities at the mouth of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Its terrestrial neighbors are Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. Maritime neighbor is Yemen. Djibouti has a convenient geographical position in means of trade. Its capital and main port Addis Ababa transports about 60 percent of Ethiopian export goods. Djibouti has a lot of problems. Its climate is arid. There are few fertile lands in Djibouti. Neighboring Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia impose additional tension in the region. Conflicts between Somalia and Eritrea adversely affect Djibouti. Bilateral ties between Djibouti and Eritrea were suspended in the period of 1998-2000. Such instability harms Djibouti and aggravates its economic lagging. DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s population comprises two main ethnical groups: Muslim tribe Issai with Somalian origin and Afars with Ethiopian origin. Scarcity of food and water are the most severe problems in Djibouti. There is also lack of expertise in dealing with these problems (Zoungrana, 2013). High unemployment and high food prices exacerbate the situation. The local government is seemed to be unable to improve the situation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWSNET) reports, that Djiboutis urban centers like Balbala, Radiska, and Baulaos suffer food insecurity. Moreover, rural areas encounter food insecurity, too. Imed Khanfir, a programme adviser with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) reports, that about 42,600 people are severely food insecure with 24,300 others moderately food insecure in Djibouti. An overall population is 774,389 citizens by 2012. USAID provide Djibouti with food aid for 150,000 or one-fourth of the overall DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Unstable economic situation is aggravated by the instant threat of the civil war between the tribes of Issais and Afars. Thus, the leader of ethnic groups dealt to share positions in the government. When the president is IssaisÃ¢â¬â¢ representative, the prime minister must be of AfarsÃ¢â¬â¢ origin. The Cabinet of Ministers positions also ought to be distributed among Issais and Afars. In 1990s Issais managed to usurp the whole government. This fact caused AfarsÃ¢â¬â¢ outrage and provoked a civil war in Djibouti. Another DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s problem is an undemocratic and authoritarian tendency. DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s president Ismail Omar Guelleh has already served two terms as a president of the country, but 2010 Constitutional amendment allowed him to be reelected for the third term. Nevertheless, international community and U.S. are seemed to tolerate such situation because of the GuellehÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement to erect US military base and anti-terrorist center in Djibouti. U.S. military base brought stability in the region, but did not eliminate all problems and threats. On the one hand, Djibouti was severely affected by the drought which hit the region in 2011. The number of drought influenced people rose from 120,000 in 2010 to 206,000 in 2011. Drought impact was aggravated by a large influx of refugees fleeing the conflict and drought in Somalia and other neighboring countries. This adds enormously to the burden on the already overstretched social service system. Another huge problem in Djibouti is its government inability to respond quickly the situation due to the elections. Every election makes government stagger and implement different initiatives very slowly. Electoral process makes government inactive and unable to solve the urgent needs of its people. Every new election causes a wholesale reorganization of the government, which initiates a set of new government initiatives which also had the effect of decreasing the government responsiveness. On the other hand, GDP growth remained relatively sufficient though it dropped short of expectations in 2011. The average GDP growth in period of 2005-2010 was around 5%. After five years of growth, economy slowed to 4.6% growth in 2011 against a predicted rate of 5.1%. The main guarantees for growth were foreign direct investment (FDI), mainly from Gulf Cooperation Council countries, into projects located around the port and construction and in the tourism sector. Concerning per capita income, the growth of the economy reached 1263 USD in 2010, qualifying Djibouti for middle income country (MIC) status under international classification. Military presence of France, the USA and Japan guarantee DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s economy additional significant revenue. Population growth is estimated at 2.18 percent every year. Djibouti Human Development Index was 0.430 in 2011, ranking the country 165 out of 187 countries. In 2010, life expectancy was 58 years, while mean years of school education was 3.8. UN still possesses no data concerning the scales of poverty in Djibouti in 2013. According to the period of the past five years, the situation did not improve, but deteriorated further in 2013. The overall amount of people living below the national poverty line more than doubled between 2002 and 2009 while the rate of people living below the nationwide extreme poverty line increased similarly over the same period. It is obvious that the economic growth of the recent past has not yet affected the poverty reduction for the large part of the population. The Government is seemed to neglect all the possibilities in expanding the humanitarian assistance taking into account the military presence in the country. New middle income country status has closed access to many grant and concessionary lending. MIC status is very unstable according to a huge amount of people living below extreme poverty line. There are no new international NGOs established operations since 2011 despite the drought emergency. The government should take more care about involving international NGO. As a result, DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s government keeps relying on UN support for technical assistance in key strategic spheres related to poverty alleviation. UN help the DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s government to accumulate resources from donors to address humanitarian needs of the most unprotected groups, influenced by the recurrent droughts. As a result, Djiboutian households keep experiencing strong food related economic pressures. The average cost of the basic food basket in 2011 remained well above the average cost for the previous five years. In 2011, the drought emergency that hit the region of Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia further aggravated the uneasy situation of the most vulnerable segments of the population, particularly those residing in the rural areas. The drought provoked the continued accumulation of livestock losses (close to 80 percent of the cattle in some areas) with a similar influence on the livelihoods of the nomadic population. Rural dwellers keep migrating to the urban areas swelling urban unemployment (60%) and poverty (42.1% extreme poverty). As a result, the UN Country Team had to devote an increased amount of time to accumulate resources to support humanitarian interventions in 2011. Furthermore, the drought and worsening insecurity in South Somalia kept provoking increases in the number of refugees infiltrating Djibouti. The quantity of refugees in the Ali Addeh camp rose from 12,000 to more than 14,000 over the course of 2010 and to 19,500 refugees at the end of 2011, a significant increase for a country of 818,159 people. In addition, the influx of migrants from Ethiopia, rushing towards Djibouti City, in seek of employment, and Yemen, the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia) via the Bab el-Mandeb Straits also continued, and reached spectacular figures at certain points in the year. The civil war threat follows Djibouti since 1991. AfarsÃ¢â¬â¢ minority struggled with Issa-dominated government. The conflict ended by signing a peace agreement in 1999 and electing a new president. Thus, recurrent influx of new refugees and immigrants from the neighboring countries reignites the conflict time after time. Peace agreement did not eliminate local violence. Ethiopian military operation in Somalia affected Djibouti negatively. Population was divided in their support of the belligerents. Djibouti has a significant number of people infected by HIV/AIDS. About 1 percent of the population lives with HIV (approximately 7,700 citizens [6,200-9,400]). The most vulnerable group is children, born by HIV/AIDS infected mothers. The UN Refugee Agency prescribes the main objectives and targets for 2014 for Djibouti. Among the main goals is refusal in refoulement and access to the refugee camps in Djibouti. Every month there are up to 400 new refugees in Djibouti from southern Somalia. About 2,700 refugees from Ethiopia and Eritrea also seek for asylum in Djibouti. The UN bodies provide regular trainings for DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s staff in order to help boarder guards and law-enforcement officials. All refugee children must be provided with birth certificates. DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s government with the UN Refugee Agency assistance ought to provide basic needs and essential services to the refugees. Basic needs include sanitation and hygiene conditions. The Holl-Holl and Ali-Addeh camps were provided with about 2,000 family latrines and 200 garbage pits. At least once a month UN employees conduct hygiene-awareness campaigns and camp clean-ups. Sanitation interventions must be frequent in order to protect refugees from he alth hazards. DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s problems are seemed to make vicious circle. On the one hand, arid climate and absence of oil deposits complicate enormously the economic growth in Djibouti. Regional instability, civil war, excessive immigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ influx aggravate the situation. The government has no financial resources to instigate industrial development let alone the environment protection issues. 40 percent of citizens live below the extreme poverty line. 1 percent is infected by AIDS/HIV. DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP grows, but the positive result is erased by the loansÃ¢â¬â¢ repayments. . Djibouti imports almost 90 percent of its food and 100 percent of its fuel, which makes it even more vulnerable to the droughts and food prices on the world market. The country is seemed to be hostage of its own climate and lack of mineral resources and oil. Budget income grows due to transshipment and port fees, DjiboutiÃ¢â¬â¢s monopoly to export goods from Ethiopia by railroads to the port Addis Ababa. Another positive factor is a military presence of France, the USA and Japan. Military bases pay taxes to the state budget and help fighting terrorism in the region. International Monetary Fund praises Djibouti for almost 5 percent GDP growth per annum. Nevertheless, the aforementioned factors burden the economy and oblige to raise taxes. International humanitarian assistance is still insufficient for the overall welfare in Djibouti. IMF recommends the government of Djibouti to implement reforms in the public sector and avoid unnecessary budget expenditures.Ã Works cited Ã¢â¬Å"United Nations Development GroupÃ¢â¬ .http://www.undg.org/unct.cfm?module=CoordinationProfilepage=CountryCountryID=DJIfuseaction=UN%20Country%20Coordination%20Profile%20for%20Djibouti The World Factbook.Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 29 Dec. 2013. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dj.html>. The Vital Port of Djibouti Receives International Aid Read more: Djibouti: Geography, History, Politics, and More | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/country/djibouti.html?pageno=2 Zoungrana, S. Food insecurity looms in Djibouti. 15 07 2013. Web. 29 Dec. 2013. http://www.irinnews.org/report/98408/food-insecurity-looms-in-djibouti>. Resident Coordinator Annual Report 2011 for Djibouti. n.d. n. page. Web. 1 Jan. 2014. http://www.undg.org/rcar2011.cfm?fuseaction=RCARctyIDC=DJIP=1625>. Ã¢â¬Å"Djibouti: Fifth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Ã¢â¬â IMF.Ã¢â¬ 19 May. 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12197.pdf Ã¢â¬Å"2013 UNHCR country operations profile Ã¢â¬â Djibouti.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e483836
Monday, January 20, 2020
Spiritual Journey in Heart of DarknessÃ Ã Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad may be a narrative about colonisation, revealing its drawbacks and corruption, but it may also be understood as a journey into the depths of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche, if taken at a symbolic level. At the beginning of the novel the reader is informed that Marlow is Ã¢â¬Å"not typicalÃ¢â¬ , that he, contrary to stay-at-home-minded seamen, is a Ã¢â¬Å"wandererÃ¢â¬ . He has no home, in a psychological sense of the word. He simply Ã¢â¬Å"follows the seaÃ¢â¬ . This may evoke an interpretation that the man is disturbed, that he attempts to find out about the secrets of his soul, to get to know himself. Since boyhood he had been interested in unexplored lands and especially in a long winding snake-like river with the Ã¢â¬Å"headÃ¢â¬ in the sea and the Ã¢â¬Å"tailÃ¢â¬ plunging deeply into the land, which, as Marlow admits, Ã¢â¬Å"charmedÃ¢â¬ him. This image resembles a map of a journey from the dark lands of the soul, the unconstrained, uncivilised core, which may be called a Freudian Id, towards light, that is Superego. Marlow desires to follow this path in the opposite di...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Intermediate Accounting 1 (3367) Ã¢â¬â Fall 2012 Research Assignment Questions Directions: Type your answer starting on the line after each question. 1. FASB Accounting Standards Codification FASC a. When did the FASC Codification become effective? The FASC became effective for interim and annual periods ending after September 15, 2009 even though the authoritative version of the Codification was released on July 1, 2009. b. Did the FASC change prior GAAP? The FASC did not change prior GAAP but it instead reorganized previous GAAP into a new structure. This new structure is organized into a new research database that is supposed to be user friendly and make finding certain GAAP easier to use.c. What does the FASB expect from the new FASC structure and system? The FASB has high expectations from the new FASC system including reducing the amount of time and effort that is used to solve an accounting research issue. The FASC also expects the Codification to mitigate the risk of noncompliance through easier usability of accounting literature. The Codification is also expected to provide accurate information through real time updates whenever Accounting Standards Updates are released and to assist the FASC with all of the research and convergence efforts.d. What are the Ã¢â¬Å"topicsÃ¢â¬ used in the ASC? There are six major topics that are used in the ASC. The first one is The General Principles Area wh ich includes broad conceptual matters. The next one is The Presentation Area which shows information is presented in the financial statements.The Assets, Liabilities, and Equity Areas have guidance on all of the balance sheet accounts while the Revenue and Expense Areas have guidance on all of the income statement accounts. The next topic that is used in the ASC is The Broad Transactions Area which deals with some financial statement accounts and is generally transaction based. The final topic used in the ASC is The Industry Area which contains guidance on how to account for specific industries or activities.e. Are SEC references included in the ASC? There are SEC references included in the ASC which are used to increase the utility of the Codification for public companies. The referenced materials include: Regulation S-X, Financial Reporting Releases, Interpretative Releases, and some SEC staff guidance.2. Transfer of Receivables FASC 860-10(a) Identify relevant Codification sectio n that addresses transfers of receivables. The main relevant Codification section that addresses the transfer of receivables is FASC 860-10-55. While there is information in other sections, most of it is found within section 55.b) What are the objectives for reporting transfers of receivables? The main objective for the reporting transfers of receivables is to provide users with an understanding of a transferorÃ¢â¬â¢s continuing involvement with any transferred financial assets. It is also to provide any restrictions on assets reported in the financial statements and also to show how a transfer of financial assets affects a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position, financial performance and cash flows.(c) Provide definitions for the following: 1. Transfer.A transfer is the conveyance of a noncash financial asset by and to someone who is not the issuer of that financial asset. 2. Recourse. Recourse is the right of the transferee of receivables to receive payment from the transferor of those receivables for: Failure of debtors to pay when due, the effects form prepayments, or adjustments resulting from defects in the eligibility of the transferred receivables. 3. Collateral. Collateral is any personal or real property in which a security interest has been given.(d) Provide other examples (besides recourse and collateral) hat qualify as continuing involvement. Several examples of continuing involvement that are provided by the ASC include: Servicing arrangements, agreements to purchase or redeem transferred financial assets, arrangements to provide financial support and the transferorÃ¢â¬â¢s beneficial interests in the transferred financial asset.3. Inventories FASC 330-10(a) Identify the primary authoritative guidance for the accounting for inventories. The primary authoritative guidance for the accounting of inventories is FASB Accounting Standards Codification topic 330.b) List three types of goods that are classified as inventory. What characteristic will aut omatically exclude an item from being classified as inventory? The three types of goods that are classified as inventory are goods awaiting sale (finished goods), goods in the course of production (work-in-process), and goods to be consumed directly or indirectly in production (raw materials). The definition of inventory does not include any long term assets that are subject to depreciation accounting. Therefore if an asset is depreciable, it is not included as inventory.c) Define Ã¢â¬Å"marketÃ¢â¬ as used in the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"lower-of-cost-or-market. Ã¢â¬ The word market in the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"lower-of-cost-or-marketÃ¢â¬ means the replacement cost of your inventory. It is the cost that it would take to buy the same inventory new.4. Asset Impairments FASC 360-10 / 820-10(a) What is the authoritative guidance for asset impairments? Briefly discuss the scope of the standard (i. e. , explain the types of transactions to which the standard applies).(b) Give several examples of ev ents that would cause an asset to be tested for impairment.(c) What is the best evidence of fair value?d) Does it appear that ABC should perform an impairment test? Explain.5. Notes Payable FASC 835-30(a) Identify the authoritative literature that provides guidance on the zero-interest-bearing note. Use some of the examples to explain how the standard applies in this setting.(b) How is present value determined when an established exchange price is not determinable and a note has no ready market? What is the resulting interest rate often called?(c) Where should a discount or premium appear in the financial statements? What about issue costs?